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     08/22/2009


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This is a work-in-progress.  It's a compilation of acronyms and definitions that I found that I had to look-up, while studying for Vista certifications (Maybe you should read it, too)


ACM - Application Compatibility Manager. The user interface that is used to view reports, based on the information from the ACT database. It functions to Collect, Organize, and Analyze the ACT data. 1) The Collect task configures data collection packages (used to Evaluate compatibility, set monitoring times, and choose data output path). Data packages can be deployed with CDs of other removable media; using Active Directory; or using SMS 2003. 2) The Organize task lets you organize collected data, such as inventory of computers, applications, and web sites; prioritize data; and create and assign categories to data for reporting. 3) The Analysis task allows you to analyze collected data, compare with the online databases at Microsoft, create reports, and filter data for further reporting and analysis.

ACPI - Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

ACT - Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT 5.0). A suite of tools that gathers application inventory for testing and mitigating application compatibility issues for Vista and Windows 2008. This includes specific issues such as UAC and WRP incompatibilities. This is done by deploying "application evaluators." ACT also has an on-line database of updated compatibility information for review. Also assists in addressing application incompatibility issues.

ACT-DC - Application Compatibility Toolkit Data Collector. Enables client computers to interpret ACT data collection package configuration settings; deploy ACT compatibility evaluators; gather collected ACT compatibility data; and send collecte data to the ACT database. All of this is done from a single user interface on the Application Compatibility Manager station.

AD DS - Active Directory Directory Services.

Advanced Startup Options Menu - Formerly known as "F8" boot, in pre-vista.

AERO - Vista's "Glass" display feature. To run AERO, the computer's Graphics card must support: 1) DirectX 9.0 or later; 2) A Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM) driver; 3) Pixel Shader 3.0 in hardware; 4) 32-bit Color and; 5) 64 MB of Memory. The minimum configuration above will support 1280 x 1024.

AIK - (Also WAIK) Windows Automated Installation Kit for configuring unattended setup answer files (unattend.xml) and capturing cloning images. It is a collection of Documents and tools to assist in deployment of Windows Vista. AIK provides detailed information on deployment, including: 1) Preinstallation Planning; 2) Preinstallation Preparation; and 3) Preinstallation Customization. It also includes tools to support: 1) Image Deployment and 2) Image Maintenance. ImageX, WinPE, and WDS are components of AIK. The AIK can be downloaded from the Microsoft download site.

Answer File - the XML file that provides the answers instead of the Typical installation GUI popups. The Answer file for Vista is commonly called autounattend.xml. This file can be created or modified by Windows SIM, from the WAIK.

Application Compatibility Cookbook - A document developed and posted on the Microsoft MSDN and Technet Sites to enable developers and integrators to report and avoid known application issues with Vista and Server 2008.

Application Compatibility Toolkit - see ACT

Application Shim - a DLL that adds one or more Windows API hooks to incompatible applications, to resolve some application compatibility issues with Vista.

Applications and Services Logs - a new category of event logs in Vista. In Vista, only legacy applications still write to the application event log. The applications and Services is a folder level view of numerous additional logs that are specific to different apdplications and services. There are 4 types of Applications and Services logs: 1) Admin: events that indicate a problem and a well-defined solution; 2) Operational: events used for troubleshooting and resolving problems. May not have specific solutions; 3) Analytic: events about program operation and problems that can be handled by user intervention (this log can have a high number of events); 4) Debug: used by developers. Note: Analytic and Debug logs are hidden in the default view. To enable, click the View menu and select "show Analytic and Debug Logs."

Atomic Transaction - See "Transactional NTFS"

autounattend.xml - See Answer file.

Basic Environment - aka Basic Infrastructure Environment. An organization that meets less than half of the BDD infrastructure optimization Best Practices. Characterized by: Manual Processes, Minimal Central Control, non-existent or unenforced IT Policies, minimal or non-existent infrastructure documentation, and lack of tools and resources to manage an environment.

BCD - Boot Configuration Data. Vista stores configuration data in the BCD - Bootmgr reads the BCD. Replaces Boot.ini in pre-vista. The BCD is stored in a registry hive. Vista provides a utility, BCDEdit to edit, export, and import BCD contents.

BCDEdit - a Vista Command-line utility to edit, export, and import most Boot configuration Data (BCD) contents. BCDEdit can ONLY be run as administrator. Use BCDEdit /? in a command windows to display options. The ONLY way to access all BCD contents is via WMI. BCDEdit is also a utility component of WinPE. You can also use BCDEdit to add WinPE to a Vista Start menu.

BDD - Business Desktop Deployment. More correctly, "Microsoft Solution Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment" (2007). Consists of a collection of guidance materials and tools called "Feature Teams," based upon Lite Touch and Zero Touch. The BDD Deployment Workbench is used to configure and manage deployments using Windows Deployment Services and SMS. Feature Teams included with BDD are: 1) Application Compatibility Feature Team, 2) Infrastructure remediation feature team, 3) Computer imaging system feature team, 4) Core and supplemental application Packing feature team, 5) User state migration feature team, 6) Security feature team, 7) Deployment feature team, 8) Operations feature team, and 9) Office upgrade feature team. BDD has 6 pre-requirements for the server and 3 requirements for the client. Server Requirements are: 1) Windows Installer 3.1; 2) Microsoft Core XML (MSXML); 3) .NET Framework 2.0; 4) MMC 3.0; 5) Windows Scripting Host (WSH) 5.6; and 6) Windows AIK (or WAIK) WAIK requires either Server 2003 sP1 or XP SP2. Clients must also have: 1) IE 5 or later; 2) WSH 5.6; and 3) MSXML 6. By default, BDD will create the Distribution Share, when it is installed, at x:\Distribution (x: will be the disk volume with the most available space). The current versions of BDD will always require an immediate update, after installation. The Deployment Workbench can be used to download and install the updates.

BDD Deployment Workbench - The primary tool used to create and manage components for Vista desktop deployment. Includes 1) Distribution Share (create and manage source files for operating systems, applications, packages, and drivers, used in desktop deployment); 2) Builds versions of the baseline, for specific deployments; 3) Deploy - includes single-server deployment, a deployment share, or a DVD ISO image; containing all of the files needed to cusomize an SMS OS deployment.

BDE - Bitlocker drive encryption (see bitlocker)

BitLocker - an encryption feature that is available in Vista Ultimate and Vista Enterprise ONLY. It can be used to encrypt a "keylocker" or an entire disk drive. Bitlocker can ONLY encrypt ONE volume. BitLocker does NOT encrypt the "System" volume, which contains a minimum of 1.5GB, just enough operating system to boot and enable BitLocker. A 2nd volume or physical drive is required for the BitLocker Disk. BitLocker can be configured to ask for a PIN number during boot. Without the PIN, an unauthorized user can gain access to the encrypted volume, by guessing the login password, or social engineering. BitLocker uses TPM for storing the encryption keys. If you don't have a TPM chip, Bitlocker can use a USB drive to store the encryption key. If you forget your PIN or USB, recovery requires entering a 48-digit numeric password, using the F-keys. This password is generated when bitlocker is implemented. In a domain, the bitlocker recovery passwords can be stored in AD, and a Bitlocker Recover Password viewer downloaded from Microsoft to view the recovery passwords.

BITS - Background Intelligent Transfer Service.

Boot Volume - Microsoft NT, in all of it's versions, has used the terminology backwards. The system starts, or "boots" from the "SYSTEM VOLUME" and runs from the "Boot Volume." These can be the same, unless Bitlocker is being used, then these must be separate volumes (not necessarily separate disk drives). In a BitLocker configuration, the System Volume is small (1.5GB) and the Boot Volume is the remainder of the disk. The boot volume is the encryped volume.

Boot.wim - WIM images can be made bootable, as is the case with Windows Vista's setup DVD. In this case, BOOT.WIM contains a bootable version of Windows PE from which the installation is performed. Other setup files are contained in the file INSTALL.WIM

Bootmgr - Controls the Vista boot process and presents the boot menu if multi-booting. Replaces NTLDR in pre-vista.

Bootsect - Part of the Vista WinPE. Updates hard disk boot code to switch between NTLDR (pre-vista) and Bootmgr (Vista). Can also be used to fix damaged or hacked boot sectors. Replaces Pre-vista FixNTFS tool.

bpp - Bits per pixel. Also known as "Pixel Depth" Windows Vista Glass requires 32 bits per Pixel depth.

CMW - Custom Maintenance Wizard File. Pre-Office 2007 installer options. This is not used in Office 2007

CredMan - Vista Credentials Manager Service. Stores credentials on the computer in one central location. After CredMan is updated with a new password, all scheduled tasks will use the new password.

Collaboration Technologies - Vista includes 2 collaboration technologies, People Near Me ( PNM ) and Peer Name Resolution Protocol ( PNRP )

Catalog File - (.clg) a file that lists the settings and packages contained in a windows .Wim image. There must be a different catalog file for each version of Windows (Vists) within the image.

Config.xml - in the Office 2007, Config.xml replaced all of the functions of the pre-Office 2007 Setup.ini. It is used to customize the Office 2007 system setup; which product(s) to install, path to the installation point, languages, chaining, location of customization files, location of software updates, pre-caching the local installation source (LIS), customizing Group-policy software installations. The OCT is the recommended tool for customizations, but some customizations can only be made with the config.xml or making last minute customizations that do not justify use of the OCT (hence, if Config.xml differs from OCT settings, config.xml wins. Config.xml is normally located in the same folder as the Setup.exe on the LIS. The Config.xml can be relocated by using the /config for setup.

ConfigMgr - See Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager

Cross-Log Query - Pre-Vista event logs had no way to correlate data across multiple log files (except look for it). Cross-Log Queries in Vista can be created to allow a cross-log view of events.

Data Collector Sets - a component of Vista Performance Diagnostic Console. Can contain performance counters, event trace data, and system configuration information (Registry Key Entries)

Devcon - a Microsoft downloadable command-line utility that acts as an alternative to Device Manager. Using DevCon, you can enable, disable, restart, update, remove, and query individual devices or groups of devices. DevCon also provides information that is relevant to the driver developer and is not available in Device Manager.

DCS - Data Collection Sets. See "Performance Diagnostic Console"

DDPS - Desktop Deployment Planning Service. A service provided by Microsoft reseller partners. 1-10 days of advice, depending upon the amount of Software Assurance that is purchased along with the product.

DFSR - See Distributed File System Replication

DHCP NAP EC - DHCP Enforcement comprises a DHCP NAP ES component and a DHCP NAP EC component.

Digitizer - The pen device, used for input on tablet PCs. (Not just a stylus)

Discover Image - a bootable .ISO which is burned onto a CD, then used to boot into WDS, if the new client's BIOS does not support PXE. (Most modern BiOSs do support PXE). The boot image will boot, then launch the Windows Deployment Services Discovery Wizard. The discovery wizard then acts as PXE to connect to WDS.

DiskPart - Used to do disk partition maintenance, like creating and deleting partitions. (a utility component of WinPE)

Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) - a component of Windows Meeting Space.

Drvload - Uised to "inject" or add drivers to a WinPE image or add a driver to a running WinPE. (a utility component of WinPE)

DWDB - Deployment Workbench Data Base. A component of System Center Configuration Manager. System Center Configuration Manager uses the DWDB and the CustomSettings.ini to determine the list of packages that will be installed

Dynamic Environment - aka Dynamic Infrastructure Environment. An organization that meets ALL of the BDD infrastructure optimization Best Practices. Characterized by: fully automated management, dynamic resource usage, Integration and Service Level Agreements with OEM partners (pre-built custome images are delivered ready-to-use).

EAPHost NAP EC - 802.1x enforcement comprises an NPS Server and an EAPHost NAP EC component

EC - Enforcement Client. Each EC is specific to the type of NAP (e.g. DHCP requires a DHCP NAP EC)

ELF - Enterprise Learning Framework. An online tool to help users determine the most relevant Learning topics. The ELF provides a number of deployment benefits, including: Prepare users for deployment and show features available in the new software; minimize disruption with a short-list of "must-know" topics; provide tips, tricks, and productivity topics to help users get the most from Vista and Office 2007.

ES - Generic abbreviation for Enforcement Server

Forwarded Events Log - the only new log in the classical view of Vista Event Viewer. It contains events that are forwarded from other computers, by using a subscription.

FVEK - Full Volume Encryption Key. Bitlocker uses a FVEK to encrypt the full volume. The FVEK is then, itself, encrypted using a Volume Master Key (VMK). Encryption uses AES 128 or 256 depending upon the group policy key length

GDI - Graphic Device Interface. The print rendering engine used in XP. Vista implements GDI to support legacy printing, but uses the new Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) XML-bases print engine as its default.

GINA - Graphical Identification and Authentication. The legacy screen that has been used for login and password in pre-vista Windows (except XP, in the home user interface).

GPMC - Group Policy Management Console. Was available as an optional download in pre-vista, but is built-in to Vista. GPMC provides the capability to edit, manage GPO links, Enable/disable GPOs, etc for both local computer group policy and Domain-based group policy.

GPO - Group Policy Object. An abstraction which contains applicable GUIDs and settings for each group policy. Vista allows multiple GPOs to exist on one machine - one for each user, if desired. There is a new Group Policy SERVICE on Vista to run GPOs.

GUID - Globally Unique ID. A hierarchical structured string, which UNIQUELY identifies one object in Windows 2000, XP, 2003, and Vista. Each new release added uses for and more GUIDs.

HAL - Hardware Abstraction Layer. A vendor-specific layer in the OS, that interfaces the hardware with the OS, allowing Windows to be unaware of the technical details of the hardware. Windows comes with several "White-box" HALs, but many vendors have vendor-proprietary hardware and require vendor-specific HALs.

Hybrid Sleep - The default shutdown mode for Vista. This mode combines S3 (Standby - formerly sleep mode) and S4 (Hibernate). When the "off" button is pushed, the Vista machine first writes the RAM to disk, then goes into "doze" or temporary sleep mode. If power is interrupted while the machine is dozing (set by the "doze time-out" in the power plan), Vista will do a shutdown power to RAM and change the state to "Hibernate" (Zero time, because RAM has already been written to the disk. If the doze is interrupted, Vista starts rapidly, from doze (standby or sleep) (reported to resume in less than 10 seconds). If the battery goes into

HRA - Health Registration Authority. An HRA is configured as a RADIUS client to use RADIUS as the authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol to a RADIUS server. (e.g. HRA is synonymous with what was formerly known as a "Radius Client")

IECE - Internet Explorer Compatibility Evaluator. An agent compatibility evaluator component of ACT. Identifies web site and web application problems expected in the deployment of Vista.

ImageX - A command-line tool used to create desktop images, update and edit an offline image - without the need to create a new image, take an image of an existing PC for distribution or for backup, Use scripting to create and edit images, and minimize then number of images - by providing HAL Independence. ImageX is included with Microsoft Solution Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment (BDD). With ImageX, you can: View the contents of an image file; capture desktop images; mount images for offline editing; store multiple images in one .wim file; compress image files; run scripts to create images. ImageX can also be used to DEPLOY images from Wim files.

Infrastructure Optimization Model. A Microsoft 4-level model that describes the level of automation of an existing enterprise system and maps that to a method of migration. It defines 4 levels of automation: Basic - No standards, hit-or-miss patching, etc - requires manual deployment; Standardized - An organization with a defined set of standard base images, multiple OSs. and automated patch management - recommended Lite Toucn deployment; Rationalized - base images defined at the corporate level and managed manually, uses automated software distribution - Zero Touch upgrades recommended; and Dynamic: Standard images and patches are provided by an OEM.

Integrity Level - The purpose of the Vista integrity mechanism is to restrict access permissions of applications that are running under the same user account, but are less trustworthy (unknown, or potentially malicious code). It extends the security architecture by assigning an integrity level to application processes and to securable objects. The primary security problem that the integrity level addresses is resisting unauthorized tampering with user data and system state. The integrity levels are not intended to be an application "sandbox," but it helps. For example, IE7 in Vista runs at a low integrity level, hence IE7' potential for damage because it can only write to low integrity level locations (Temporary Internet Files, History folder, and cookies folder).

Inventory Collector - an agent compatibility evaluator component of ACT. Examines each computer; identifies the installed applications, devices and system information.

IPSec NAP EC - (also see IPSec, NAP, and EC). A Health Certificate Server and an IPSec NAP EC are required. A health certificate server is the combination of an HRA and a certification authority (CA).

KMDF - Kernel Mode Driver Framework. A pre-Vista method of developing and installing drivers, which ran with elevated privileges in the Windows Kernel. See UMDF.

KMS - Key Management Service. Part of Volume Activation 2.0 Enables organizations with volume licenses to perform local activations for computers IN A MANAGED ENVIRONMENT without connecting to Microsoft for each computer. For activities running more than 25 computers. The new computers activate with a local Server 2003 (KMS for 2003 must be downloaded from Microsoft), 2008, or Vista machine running KMS. The KMS "server" must be activated with Microsoft, one time, over the internet or via phone. A KMs server can run other applications, and one server can service thousands of "clients." Two KMS servers are recommended for fault tolerance. A VBScript is provided to activate the KMS Server (cscriptc:\windows\system32\slmgr.vbs -ipk <VLK key>). Most management and queries MUST be done with the slmgr script in 2003 - CAN be done from the command line in Vista, but Vista KMS "servers" also have a GUI. Retail licenses cannot use KMS. When installed, KMS service publishes it's location in DNS in a SRV record. Both Domain members and stand-alone workstations can locate the KMS, by querying DNS for the SRV record. After a KMS is activated, clients self-activate with the KMS server, using DNS or a registry entry. After initializing the KMS server, there is a short grace period for Vista-based servers (2003 servers have NO grace period). 1) Client computers that are not activated attempt to activate every 2 hours; 2) Client computers MUST renew their activation with the KMS every 180 days; 3) KMS client computers renew activation every 7 days, by default; 4) KMS client computers connect with the KMS server via RPC over TCP on port 1688; 5) only Vista Business and Vista Vista Enterprise with VLK's can be KMS clients; 6) A KMS server must have 25 connected clients, before it will activate ANY clients (Virtualized Vistas don't count in the 25 requirement). slmgr.vbs returns a cryptic error code. To decode, run slui.exe 0x2a 0x<error code>. slmgr.vbs -dli can be used to query status and "current license count" (e.g have you used-up all of your licenses)

Link Layer Topology Discovery Responder - See LLTD. The responder responds to network map requests from other LLTD-enabled systems. LLTD Responder can be back-fitted to Windows XP.

LIS - Local Installation Source. In Office 2007, all installations are made from a local installation source, which is located in a hidden directory at \msocache\all users\<guid>. This is always located at the root of the disk drive or partition that the office 2007 installation is run from.

Lite Touch installation - see BDD

LKG - Last known Good startup state. In Vista, the LKG is still an F8 option, but the Startup repair tool will automatically attempt to roll back to the LKG, if it cannot repair the startup problem.

LLTD - Link Layer Topology Discovery. Replaces NETBIOS browsing in Windows Vista to show resources and discover shared resources. LLTD is installed in Vista, by default, but it must be enabled before it can be used. Out-of-the-box, Vista cannot be discovered on the network - and it will not discover neighbors.

LLTD Responder - see Link Layer Topology Discovery Responder.

LoadState - the 2nd phase of the USMT migration process. After the new or upgraded machines are in place, Vista, and all of its applications installed, ScanState is used to remove the stored ScanState files and settings, and copy them to the target system.

LocalService Account - see "LocalSystem"

LocalSystem Account - The pseudo-user account that was used for most system functions in versions prior to VISTA. Vista has implemented two new, less-priviledged pseudo-user accounts to run most services, LocalService and NetworkService.

LSA - Local Security Authority.LSA stands for Local Security Authority, which is an important required component of Windows that deals with login authentication and security policies, The Local Security Authority or LSA is a key component of the logon process in WinXP (as well as NT & Win2000) The LSA is responsible for validating users for both local and remote logons. The LSA also maintains the local security policy. During the local (interactive) logon to a machine, a person enters their name and password to the logon dialog. This information is passed to the LSA, which then calls the appropriate authentication package. The password is sent in a nonreversible secret key format using a one-way hash function. The LSA then queries the SAM database for the user's account information. If the key provided matches the one in the SAM, the SAM returns the users SID and the SIDs of any groups the user belongs to. The LSA then uses these SIDs to generate the security access token.

LTI - Lite Touch Installation. Uses Microsoft Deployment Toolkit (MDT) to minimize the effort of installing Vista - also see ZTI, BDD, and MDT. Used when there is no System Center Configuration Manager Server or SMS. Requires interation from an administrator or a delegated user. Requirements to deploy an LTI infrastructure requires several servers - or a single server and several roles, including: 1) A BUILD SERVER - Source for customized .WIMs, and OOB drivers, service packs, and language packs; 2) DATA SERVER - To store the USMT user data; 3) APPLICATION INSTALLATION SERVER - storage for application installation bits; 4) WINDOWS DEPLOYMENT SERVICES (WDS) SERVER - the PXE environment with both boot and installation images (WDS can be replaced by WinPE CDs)

MAK - Multiple Activation Key. Uses a product key that can activate a specific number of computers. The total number of activations at any given time are referred to as the "activation pool." MAKs are activation keys, they are not used to install Vista, but after-installation activations. Microsoft maintains "activation servers" which provide feedback on the remaining licenses in a pre-purchased "activation pool." A MAK can be installed on a computer that was set up for KMS activation, but has not connected to activate and is at risk of the grace period expiring. (Grace period CANNOT be extended.) A MAK can also be embedded in an image for download using WDS (formerly RIS).

MAK Independent Activation - See MAK. Requires that each machine connect to the internet and activate against Microsoft's activation servers.

MAK Proxy Activation - See MAK. Enables a central proxy machine to request activation for multiple machines, with only one connection to the internet.

MDT - Microsoft Deployment Toolkit. MDT 2008 is the next version of Business Desktop Deployment (BDD) 2007. Adds new software and a single path to create images and automate deployment of desktops AND SERVERS. Tools and processes for desktop and server deployment. See LTI and ZTI.

Microsoft Solution Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment - See BDD

Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager - (SCCM) The Server 2007 upgrade for RIS server and SMS 2003.

Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager Task Sequencer - (See SCCM) A Component of SCCM and the Deployment Workbench. (Deployment Workbench creates the Tasks and Groups). The Task Sequencer is responsible for ordering the sequence of tasks in a deployment. It uses Groups, then subgroups and tasks just like folders and files. The Configuration Manager Console can also create task sequencing.

MSI - The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer) is an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on modern Microsoft Windows systems. The installation information, and often the files themselves, are packaged in installation packages, loosely these are relational databases structured as OLE Structured Storage Files and commonly known as "MSI files", from their default file extension.

MSP - Setup Customization File. Created by Office 2007 OCT to customize installation options - replaced the pre-Office 2007 .mst file.

MST - Microsoft Transform file. Created by the pre-Office 2007 MS Office Custom Installation Wizard, runs in tandem with an .MSI, to change the actual installation.

NAP - Network Access Protection. The policy enforcement platform built into Vista and Server 2008 (Formerly the "Quarantine" role). NAP allows you to enforce compliance with client health policies or access restricted resources to update virus signatures, etc, until it can become compliant. NAP enforcement options in VISTA are: IPSec, 802.1x, VPN and DHCP.

NAS - Network Attached Storage. Typically a big disk (or a "refrigerator-size" rack of disks) usually SCSI, which are carved-up and shared on the network. Usually has a tiny, one-function Operating system, such as a cut-down version of Linux.

NetworkService Account - see "LocalSystem"

Netsh advfirewall - a netshell context which is specific to VISTA and Svr 2008 to manage that version of advanced firewall.

NPS - Network Policy Server (formerly the role of IAS Server)

OCT - Office Customization Tool. A new component of the install process for Office 2007. Office 2007 config.xml can also be used to customize at run-time. The OCT can also be used to create and save an .MSP custom config. The MSP replaces the former .MST Transform file. OCT can set: the Office install path, remove previous versions, features, default applications, custom files, registry entries, shortcuts, and create a customized MS Outlook 2007 User profile. The default location for the .msp is in the Updates folder. It can be relocated by adding the /adminfile setting to the setup command line. An MSP can be used to customize an installation after installation. The OCT tool is started by running "setup.exe /admin"

OFC - Office File Converter. Part of the Office 2007 OMPM.

OOBE - Out-of-box-experience. The default install of Vista, as if just rolled off a retail/corporate Vista CD.

Oobe.xml - Out of box experience. One of two unattended answer file in Vista Imaging and deployment. The Oobe.xml customizes the welcome screen, which starts after setup and only on the first startup.

OMPM - Office Migration Planning Module. Operates in conjunction with the Office File Converter to do bulk conversions to XML. Before running teh OMPM File Scanner you must first edit the OFFScan.ini file and then run OFFScan.exe from the computer that is to be scanned.

OPK - OEM Pre-installation Kit. The Windows install package for pre-installing Windows, used by Vendors (OEMs)

OPS - Office Profile Setting file. Pre-Office 2007 file to create custom profiles at install time. This file is replaced with Active Directory policies in Office 2007.

ORK - Office Resource Kit

Oscdimg - creates customized ISO images of WinPE. You can boot a computer from this ISO. (a utility component of WinPE)

OSD - Operating System Deployment.

OSD Capture CD - See "OSD and SMS OSD" A version of WinPE, Created within the SMS Administrator Console (Image Packages Node). Creates an ISO.

OSD Feature Pack - an add-on to SMS, used to create images within SMS, allowing SMS to deploy and manage images using Zero Touch. The OSD feature pack for SMS can be downloaded from Microsoft - it is also included in Microsoft System Center Configuration Manger. OSD Provides SMS with the capability for: 1) Image Capture Management for the .WIM image format; 2) Operating System Package Management - customizes the settings for deployments; 3) User State Migration (must also download the USMT 3.0 for Vista); 4) Image Deployment - Push out via SMS 2003; and 5) Reporting.

PA - Protected Administrator Account. One of the two user accounts that Vista applications run under ( See SU and UACCE ).

PDL - Page Description Language. The actual language which a computer sends to a printer. Numerous PDLs exist, from the legacy HPPDL, PostScript, etc. Vista uses the XPS PDL by default, if the print device supports it.

PE - See Windows PE

PEimg - Used to modify a WinPE image. (a utility component of WinPE)

Per Service SID - Per Service Security Identifier. A component of Windows Service Hardening, implemented in VISTA. Beginning with VISTA, a standard SID is assigned to every service. This SID can be used to explicitly or automatically (by installer) grant permissions to the specific system resources that that service is authorized to access. In addition to standard resources, Service SIDS are also linked DIRECTLY with the Vista advanced firewal policy.

Performance Diagnostic Console - Renamed after Beta, now known as Reliability and Performance monitor. Vista combined the pre-vista functions of Task Manager, Performance Logs and Alerts, Server Performance Advisor, and System Monitor into the Performance Diagnostic Console. For useful information, the Reliability and Performance Monitor must be run as an administrator. (The traditional Task Manager, with all of it's characteristic capabilities is still installed.) The components consist of: 1) Resource Overview - a super-set of the orignial task manager: Reliability 2) monitor - provides a systems stability chart which presents one year of system stability data, including errors, warnings, software installations, and uninstallations, hardware failures, windows failures, and other data - all presented on a time-line for easy correlation; 3) System Stability Report, more details than the system stability chart; 4) Reliability Monitor - tracks key events such as memory problems, Hard disk, Drivers, Applications, and OS failures - also presented on a time line; 5) The time-honored System Monitor (originally Performance Monitor) with real-time displays of countless system counters and data; and 6) data collector Sets (DCS) which can be a saved monitoring collection, triggered by a schedule, triggered by an event or failure (similar to the traditional Logs and Alerts utility).

Performance Monitor - a component of Vista Performance Diagnostic Console

Phishing Filter - a new feature of IE7. It performs 3 tasks to help protect from Phishing sites. (1) Compares the web site address with a list of known GOOD sites; (2) Analyzes visited sites for characteristics of a Phishing site; and (3) Checks a list of known BAD sites. Phishing filters attempt to reduce the likelyhood that a phishing attack from a malicious website (or a legitimate website that has been hacked) will be successful.

PNM - People Near Me. See Collaboration Technologies. PNM "discovers" computers on the same subnet as the user. People Near Me appears as an icon in the Networking category of Control Panel

PnP-X - Plug-and-play-extensions. A network or web services protocol, which is used by LLTD and LLTD Responder to discover and establish connections.

PNPUtil - Plug-and-play utility command-line tool for managing vista driver store. Add or delete some or all drivers in a driver packge.

PNRP - Peer Name Resolution Protocol. See Collaboration Technologies. Unlike PNM, PNRP can be used to communicate in a massively scalable peer-to-peer group, over an entire corporate network or even the internet. PNRP uses IPV6, but can use IPV4, using a Toredo tunneling protocol. Toredo allows IPV6 packets to be tunneled inside of IPV4 packets.

Power Plan - a profile for Vista Power Management. There are 3 default power plans; Power Saver (CPU max is limited to 50%), Balanced, and High-Performance.

Power States - Registry settings for Vista Power Management. (Requires ACPI-capable Bios - which all modern computers support). S0=Working State (Also known as "G0 state"), S3=Standby (Formerly "Sleep." RAM is still using power), S4=Hibernate, S5=Soft Off (Some power is being used by the MOBO), G3=Mechanically off (on-off switch)

PrintBRM.exe - The command-line backup | Restore | Management tool, included with Vista and W08. This command is NOT on the default path. You must CD %systemroot%\system32\spool\tools to run it.

Problem Reports and Solutions - An improved version of pre-Vista Dr Watson. Used to monitor application problems. It works in conjunction with Windows Error reporting. After the Windows Memory Diagnostics tool or the Windows Network diagnostics tools have run, you can use the Problem reports and solutions tool to see the problem report details and check with Microsoft for known fixes.

PXE - Pre-Boot Execution Environment. An on-board boot capability which is built-in to the MOBO or the NIC card of all modern computers. Allows the bare-metal roll-out client to contact a RIS server and request an OS download. PXE functionality is not integrated into the System Center Configuratin Managers PXE provider.

Rationalized Environment - aka Rationalized Infrastructure Environment. An organization that meets ALL of the BDD infrastructure optimization Best Practices. Characterized by: Proactive security policies, lite-touch or zero-touch deployments, and low-touch management.

Reboot Manager - (aka "Restart Manager) a new Vista feature that reduces the number of restarts required for application and OS updates. Analyzes an application and restarts only the necessary SERVICES. Saves the current (application) state, updates the application, restores the state. Updates happen silently, no user prompts, and no user data is lost. Programs must be rewritten to work with reboot manager.

REgistry Virtualization - aka "virtualization" an application compatibility technology that enables registry write operations to be redirected to per-user locations (transparently - but can cause application compatibility problems in some applications. This is unique to non-UAC-compliant applications. In some events, there can be virtualized values AND non-virtualized values for the same key. Read operations, read and merge the results, unless the Virtual values conflict with the non-virtualized values, in which case, the virtualized values take precedence. Works ONLY for 32 bit applications.

Reliability and Performance Monitor - see Performance Diagnostic Console.

Reliability Monitor - a component of Vista Performance Diagnostic Console

Refresh Scenario - A USMT scenario in which ScanState gathers and stores the user data; the old machine is reformatted; the new OS and applications are installed; LoadState is used to load the user settings on the new computer

Replace Scenario - A USMT scenario in which ScanState gathers and stores the user data; the old machine is replaced; the new OS and applications are installed; LoadState is used to load the user settings on the new computer

Reports (in Performance Diagnostic Console) - Generated with one report per data collector set. Use Data Manager to specify rules. Default reports are: Lan Tracing, System Overview, and Wireless Tracing.

Resource Overview - a component of Performance Diagnostic Console

Restart Manger - see reboot manager.

RIS - Remote Installation Services. A bare-metal OS deployment tool for use with pre-Vista. See WDS.

RMS - Rights Management Services - Windows Rights management embeds usage policies in documents to control their use. RMS requires 3 components: 1) RMS server - a Window 2008 web server handles certifications, licensing, enrollment of users and server, and administration; 2) RMS Client - a group of processes that work with the RMS server to prove licenses, etc. Windows Vista includes an RMS client and; 3) RMS-enabled applications. Applications that are not RMS-enabled are unable to open RMS-protected documents and media.

RSS - Really Simple Syndication. (Also Atom, and a dozen other names for the same methods) A method which allows web content developers (including bloggers and podcasting) to "publish" their work - and users to "subscribe" to the published information, and any subsequent changes, to be automatically downloaded. (called a "feed"). Office 2007 is tightly integrated with RSS.

S4U - Service for Users. A set of Kerberos extensions that allows a task to impersonate a user account and use those credentials without actually logging in. This eliminates the need to store passwords on the local computer.

ScanState - the first phase of a USMT migration. During ScanState the information to be migrated is collected from the old system and stored in the designated location on a Server, etc. ScanState creates the USMT3.MIG file, which contains the data to be migrated. By default ScanState does not encrypt data, but it can be set to encrypt, using a run-command-argument with the Key string, or pointing to a text file with the key string. Compression of the USMT3.MIG is ON, by default, but it can be set to not compress. Scanstate can be scripted, using an XML file (usually config.xml) ScanState can migrate all users on a computer in one pass. See USMT

SCCM - see "Security Center Configuration Manager"

SIM - Systems Image Manager (or Windows System Image Manager or Windows SIM). A Vista tool to create Unattended answer files (unattend.xml and Oobe.xml); distribition shares; or modify the files inside a configuration set. The SIM is a component of the WAIK, which is a component of BDD 2007.

Single Instancing - The ability of Vista image files (WIM) to store numerous image configurations, but share common files from a single instance of the file - saving space in the image.

SLP - Microsoft Office 2007 Single Language pack (add-on). All language-specific parts for any office application are contained in one SLP. You can install one-or-many SLPs with an installtion. OCT is used to customize the installation. Config.xml can also be used to specify which languages to install (default matches the "locale" setting.

SMS - Systems Management Server an older version network management and software installation tool from Microsoft that pre-dated the System Center Configuration Server. SMS 2003 is still useful in Zero Touch Vista migrations.

SMS OSD - Systems Management Server Operating System Deployment. An Add-on feature-pack to SMS 2003, to enable SMS to do Zero Touch deployment. Also See ZTI.

SRT - Startup Repair Tool. See "Startup Repair"

Standard User Analyzer Tool.

Standardized Environment - aka Standardized Infrastructure Environment. An organization that meets more than half of the BDD infrastructure optimization Best Practices. Characterized by: Reasonable hardware/software inventoies, Standards and Policies, some automated procedures, and improved security measures.

Startup Repair Tool - a Vista term for the equivalent of the pre-vista "Command Console." Rules remain about the same - It can be run ONLY from the install CD, unless it is installed on the hard disk (before the crash). Unlike Command Console, Startup repair will auto-run, and auto-reboot as many times as necessary, if it is installed and if it detects a problem. Also, like command console, it will be an option in the Windows Advanced Startup Options Menu (F8 Boot Menu), if it is pre-installed. It automatically fixes many common problems, including boot problems - and can also be used manually. The startup repair tool can automatically repair incompatible drivers, missing or corrupt configuration, and corrupt disk metadata. The startup repair tool creates a log file to review after the system is restarted. If the startup repair tool cannot automatically repair a startup problem, the system is automatically rolled back to the LKG.

SU - Standard User Account. One of the two user accounts that Vista applications run under ( See PA and UACCE ).

SUA - Subsystem for Unix-based Applications.

Symbolic Links - A Unix-like feature that allows one file to be referenced by different names - or from different locations. Created from a command-line with mklink

Sysprep - System Preparation Tool. The same as the pre-Vista Sysprep tool. After preparing an image for cloning, Sysprep strips out ALL box-specific information (SID, GUIDs, Computer Name, IP Addresses, User Names, etc) Also Removes-resets any Windows Activation (UP TO 3 TIMES, only). After Sysprep, an image is collected, which, when rolled-out asks for these items (or uses an unattended answer file) to re-configure the clone(s). Vista's Sysprep can also be configured to start the Windows welcome screen on the next start.

System Center Configuration Manager - see Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager

System Configuration - formerly "msconfig"

System Stability Index - an output of the Reliability Monitor

System STability report - an output of the Reliability Monitor

System Volume - Microsoft NT, in all of it's versions, has used the terminology backwards. The system starts, or "boots" from the "SYSTEM VOLUME" and runs from the "Boot Volume." These can be the same, unless Bitlocker is being used, then these must be separate volumes (not necessarily separate disk drives). In a BitLocker configuration, the System Volume is small (1.5GB) and the Boot Volume is the remainder of the disk. The boot volume is the encryped volume.

Tags - Tags are keywords that you can add to a file in Vista, that are searchable. Vista Search stores tags for all file types. Technically, tags are classified as "metadata" or data about data, or properties. After tags are added to a file (ex. You add tags to vacation photos), you can search for files, based on those tags.

TCG - Trusted Computing Group Standards. A BIOS feature that supports the TPM. If the TPM is used for storing Bitlocker Keys, it must be at least version 1.2.

Toredo tunneling protocol - Toredo allows IPV6 packets to be tunneled inside of IPV4 packets.

TPM - Trusted Platform Module. A TPM is a chip on the motherboard which stores keys, passwords, and digital certificates. BitLocker uses TPM for storing the encryption keys. If you dont have a TPM chip, Bitlocker can use a USB drive to store the encryption key. If the TPM is used for BitLocker, it must be at least Version 1.2. A TPM is not required for Bitlocker, but, if there is no TPM, it MUST use a USB device. The BIOS must support access for USB storage devices.

Transactional NTFS (TxF) - a new feature of Vista NTFS, which ensures that each transaction completes correctly - or the entire transaction is rolled-back to a stable state. This can be a file, a folder, or even multiple files across multiple computers. This is seen, when an install hiccups, and Vista asks if it should be rolled-back. Also, less obvious, but roll-back is automatic in some instances, where an operation fails. This is NOT an administrator function - it is a programmer call to tell the system where a transaction begins and where it is finalized. TxR works the same way for registry transactions.

TrustedInstaller.exe - see WRP.

TxF see Transactional NTFS.

TxR Transactional Registry - see Transactional NTFS.

UAC - User Account Control. A protective mechanism which is built-in to VISTA, designed to prevent unauthorized users and malware from installing or running unauthorized applications or roles. It also allows administrators to run with standard user permissions, yet perform all necessary administrative functions, without having to logoff or perform that action using "RunAs." UAC is quite controversial, because of it's pervasive behaviour. Numerous sites contain instructions to remove, disable, or modify UAC's behavior. The standard answer is to remove or turn it off - this is NOT recommended, because UAC performs many useful functions in protecting the system. A downloadable tool, TWEAKUAC.exe is available on the web, it will put the UAC in "silent" mode, while still having it running.

UACCE - User Account Control Compatibility Evaluator. An agent compatibility evaluator component of ACT. Identifies potential problems about legacy applications running under protected Administrator ( PA ) or Standard User ( SU ) accounts on Vista.

UCE - Update Compatibility Evaluator. An agent compatibility evaluator component of ACT. Identifies potential conflict impacts and used to prioritize testing and reduce uncertainty in deploying Vista updates.

UEFI - United Extensible Firmware Interface. A new standard for firmware that is architecture independent and makes the boot process compatible between different hardware architectures. UEFI also eliminates the 16-bit real mode interface with the BIOS.

UFD - USB Flash Drive (common Thumb drive).

UMDF - User Mode Driver Framework. A less-trusted driver model in Vista. It is typically used for USB and other external devices (including printers). KMDF is used for internal resources - and have stricter signing requirements. (both use apparently identical .inf files). Printers can often be problematic in migrations, because they do NOT have UMDF drivers.

Unattend.xml - Generic name for the Vista unattended answer file. Unattend.xml replaces unattend.txt and Winbom.ini. Unattended install also uses Oobe.xml as another answer file.

User State Migration Tool - see USMT

USMT - User State Migration Tool. For migrating user settings via an intermediate server. Helps ensure that user files and settings are migrated during large deployments of XP and Vista. Migrates some OS components, such as IE settings, Outlook Express mail, wallpaper and icons, accessibility settings, etc. Also Migrates some Application settings, including Microsoft Office, and MSN Messenger. USMT does NOT migrate applications - just the settings. USMT 3.0 can be used for XP-to-Vista or Vista-to-Vista only.

VAMT - Volume Activation Management Tool - part of the MAK volume managment system - can be used to force immediated activation of a MAK activation client. VAMT allows you to automate MAK deployment and activation over the network. It distributes MAKs from a centralized console. VAMT keeps a current activation count and lists the activation status of all MAK-activated systems in the environment. You can download VAMT

Virtual PC Express - Under Vista, older versions of Windows will run as a subsystem, thanks to the use of Virtual PC Express, a feature of Microsoft's new Enterprise and Ultimate versions. Virtual PC Express allows users to run any previous version of the Windows operating system, and customers who have annuity agreements with Microsoft will be able to install an older version of Windows on top of Virtual PC Express without having to acquire an additional license.

VCE - Vista Compatibility Evaluator - An agent compatibility evaluator component of ACT. Identifies incompatibilities because of GINA (see GINA); services which try to run in Session 0; and depreciated application components

VLK - Volume License Key. A pre-Vista licensing model in which an organization purchased a number of licenses, which were then exempt from activation.

VMK - Volume Master Key (in Bitlocker). The sectors of data on the drive are encrypted using the FVEK (full-volume encryption key). However, the FVEK is stored locally in encrypted form and the user never interacts with or uses the FVEK directly. The key that users work with is the VMK (volume master key). The VMK is used to encrypt and decrypt the FVEK which, in turn, encrypts and decrypts the actual data sectors

Volume Activation 2.0 - The Vista version of pre-vista "activation." It is similar, however, in pre-Vista, Volume License Agreement licensed did not require activation. Vista requires that ALL be activated. Vista provides 2 tools to assist in activating volume licenses, MAK, and KMS.

VPN NAP Enforcement Server - Vista Virtual private network enforcement comprises a VPN NAP Enforcement Server (ES) component and a VPN NAP EC Component.

WAIK - see AIK.

WAS - Windows Activation Services

Web Services for Devices - see LLTD, LLTD Responder, and PnP-X. Web Services for devices works with LLTD for web-enabled device managment.

WDDM - Windows Display Driver Model driver. A requirement to support Vista AERO video Displays. Improves video functionality, stability, and reliability. WDDM requires DirectX9 or higer, Pixel Shader 2.0, and a 32 Bit Pixel Depth (bpp).

WDI - Windows Diagnostic Infrastructure. A suite of new diagnostic tools provided in Windows Vista. It can not only identify existing problems, but can also predict impending failures and recommend corrective or mitigating actions. WDI can assis with Unreliable memory, network-related problems, an startup problems. The WDI Includes the Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool, the Windows Network Diagnostics tool,

WDS - Windows Deployment Services or Windows Deployment Server (AKA Windows DS. An upgrade of RIS in Vista and above. Can be used to install Vista images on new, unformatted disk drives, in full-automatic, remote setup. As in RIS, the client computers must support remote boot (PXE), most modern BIOSs do. WDS is included in the AIK (or WAIK) (not included in BDD, but it has a role in BDD deployments. Prerequisits for installing and running WDS are pretty stringent: 1) a WDS server must either be a member server in a domain or a domain controller, 2) WDS uses PXE, which uses DHCP. DHCP must be active in the domain, 3)DNS (all domains have DNS), 4) installation media or a network share for the image, 5) runs only on NTFS file systems, and 6) Minimum, Windows 2003 SP1 server with RIS INSTALLED (RIS does not have to be configured, but it must be installed on the target server). WDS can be configured with a WDS configuration wizard or using the WDSUtil Command-line tool.

WDSUtil - The command-line which manages WDS in both W03 and Vista/W08. Look up the command for a dozen or more commands. WDSUtil is not installed until RIS is installed and W03 SP2 or just install RIS, then WDS on W08.

WER - Windows Error Reporting. Part of Reliability and Performance Monitor. WER collects information about hardware failures and sends it to Microsoft for analysis. WER also drives the automatic memory scanner and other proactive self-diagnostics. (This is the pop-up that asks if it can send error reporting info to Microsoft)

WET - Windows Easy Transfer. A Vista Utility (or a USB-to-USB cable) to assist in migration of user state after a clean install. Easy transfer is most useful for personal use or one-user-at-a-time.

WIM - Windows Imaging Format. The new Vista imaging format, used to create and manage images. Provides capability to create and distribute hardware independent images to desktops. WIM images are copied at the file level and deployed at the file level, rather than at the sector level - as most imaging systems do. WIM allows you to install an image on any size of partition - even if the destination partition is smaller than the original partition (as long as it is large enough to store the data). Sector-based imaging systems cannot be installed on partitions that are not equal or larger than the source image partition. Installing an image from a WIM is non-destructive. You can install the image on a volume that already has files on it, without erasing the volume. WIM files are typically quite large and can make a major impact on network traffic - Wireless networks and WIM files are very sloooow. Use a local subnet "staging server."

WIM Boot Filter - Allows embedded WinPE boot image inside the WIM file, which can boot from the WIM image CD/DVD.

WIM FS - Windows Imaging File System. Enables mounting and browsing the WIM as a file system.

WIMGAPI - WIM Imaging Application Programming Interface. Vista programmers use WIMGAPI to provide access to and manipulate Vista WIM image files, including: 1) Add, update, and remove file data; 2) add, update, and remove image data; 3) extract image data; 4) mount an image using the WIM file system filter; 5) span images and; 6) Provide messaging status and progress (without expanding the image to access the files in the image)

WinRM - Windows Remote Management. Microsoft’s implementation of WS-Management standard which allows remote computers to be easily managed through a SOAP-based web service. WinRM allows obtaining data (including WMI and other management information) from local and remote computers running Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 (if WinRM is installed on those computers), Windows Server 2008 and all WS-Management protocol implementations on other operating systems. Using WinRM scripting objects along with compatible command-line tools (WinRM or WinRS), allows administrators to remotely run management scripts. A WinRM session is authenticated to minimize security risks.


WinRS - Windows Remote Shell allows establishing secure Windows Remote Management sessions to multiple remote computers from a single console. (a junior SSH for Windows). WinRS just remotely executes what you specify and returns the results.

Windows AIK - See AIK.

Windows Advanced Startup Options Menu - See Advanced Startup Options Menu

Windows Connect Now - A Vista utility and technology that allows you to configure a Wireless access point, and store the data on a USB drive to be distributed to all of the computers that need wireless access to that WAP. This is all accomplished via a simple wizard.

Windows Defender - a Microsoft proprietary version of anti-malware protection software and signature service. Defender is built in to Vista and daily signature updates are automatic and free. Windows Defender is NOT a Virus protection service.

Windows DS - See WDS. Windows Deployment Services. Uses WinPE to start a DS (RIS) deployment.

Windows Easy Transfer - Formerly known as Windows File and Settings Transfer Wizard in pre-Vista. Unlike USMT, easy transfer does not require an intermediate storage location. It can transfer via a network, an Easy Transfer cable, a USB device, a share, an installation CD, or an Easy Transfer CD Easy transfer assumes that the target computer already has the new Vista OS installed with both the OS AND APPLICATIONS. The Vista-side easy transfer wizard is used to create the Easy Transfer files to be run on the old computer. These files can be stored on ANY form of media that can be used to move the files to the old computer. On the old computer, the Easy Transfer Wizard is started by running migwiz.exe, included in the Easy Transfer files from the Vista machine.

Windows Easy Transfer cable - a pre-programmed USB cable with the application in a ROM between the old and new computers. Eliminates the need to know anything about the transfer. The Easy Transfer cable can be used on either the old or the new computer; can be used in a drag-and-drop from one window to the other; or can run automatically. Since It can be used drag-and-drop, it can be used to migrate more than just "user state;" "application settings:" and user's "my Documents." It does NOT migrate passwords, such as email passwords, etc.

Windows Firewall with Advanced Security group policy - a new setting in the group policy (Local Security Policy or windows 2008 domain policy) added with Vista.

Windows Mail - was called Microsoft Outlook Express in pre-vista OSs.

Windows Meeting Space - A peer-to-peer collaboration app that allows up to 10 people to work together. It is the primary collaboration application included in Vista. It replaced the former NetMeeting application in windows 2000 and "conf" in XP. It was previously Windows Collaboration. Windows uses PNM to locate other people on the local subnet - for internet meetings, an email invitation or a "file invitation" is required. All communication between the participants is encrypted. Voice communication is phone-based.

Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool - One component of the WDI, designed to diagnose difficult memory problems. It can run automatically, in conjunction with the Microsoft Online Crash Analysis - and generate a report at the next reboot, or it can be run manually. If the Windows Memory Diagnostics tool detects a problem in memory, it will avoid (those) locations at the next startup - to enable recovery.

Windows Network Diagnostics Tool - - One component of the WDI, designed to diagnose network problems. It can run automatically - and sometimes repair the problems automatically, or diagnose the problem and recommend fixes

Windows OPK - see OPK

Windows PE - (Also WINPE) Windows Preinstallation Environment for starting computers. A bootable tool that provides OS features for installation, troubleshooting, and recovery. It is not a general purpose OS. It performs 3 specific tasks: Install Vista, Troubleshooting, and Recovery. It can "inject" drivers before or after the PE has started. If a driver is needed after starting, a special drive can be injected - and the hardware used immediately. It can also partition and format disk drives. Windows PE is the primary boot agent for the OEM Pre-installation Kit (OPK) and the Windows Automated Installation Kit (Windows AIK). WinPE also supports installation of pre-Vista OSs, across a network share or otherwise. Supports X86, X64, and AMD64. Replaces the functionality of DOS boot disks in pre-Vista. PE includes several utilities; DiskPart, Drvload, Oscdimg, PEimg, and BCDEdit.

Windows RE - Windows Recovery Environment. Can be pre-installed on a Vista system, invoked from a Vista Setup CD, or invoked from WinPE. Includes numerous tools for recovery, similar to the XP/2003 /CmdCons, but much more powerful - can be run on a dead machine. Options include System restore, BCDEdit, Regedit, Diskpart, Startup repair, etc. Most vendors include RE on the recovery CD and/or partition.

Windows Setup - The file to install Vista (replaces the Winnt and winnt32 programs). Like Winnt, can be run interactively or unattened.

Windows Servicing - See WRP

Windows SIM - See Windows System Image Manager.

Windows System Image Manager - A tool for customizing and automating the installation of Windows Vista (Similar to pre-Vista unattended setup). Creates and edits XML-based Unattend.xml installation setup files; add, modify, or delete optional components such as languages, service packs, and device drivers. Windows System Image Manager can be scripted from the command line. In addition, SIM (or WSIM) can create an answer file to install 3rd party drivers and apps, language packs, Service packs, and updates; and view all configurable settings in an image.

Windows System Imaging Process - A multi-part process and tools, including: 1) Plan - Determine deployment method - use WAID, BDD; 2) Environment Setup - Build deployment environment - use Windows SIM; 3) Customize - Create answer file(s) - use Windows SIM, Unattend.xml, and Oobe.xml; 4) Install and test - Install a new computer - use WinPE, Windows Setup, and Sysprep; 5) Deploy - Capture, store, and deploy image(s) - use ImageX, WDS, Distribution share; and 5) Maintain - Modify existing image(s) - use Windows SIM.

WinHelp - Pre-vista .hlp help files are not supported on Vista. Winhelp has been included in all Windows since 3.1. Beginning with Win98, all versions ALSO included HTML Help.chm (compressed html) help files. Microsoft has a downloadable .hlp reader, if needed.

Winload - The operating system loader for Vista. Control is passed to Winload from Bootmgr to load the OS Kernel, HAL, and boot drivers. In multi-boot, each Vista has its own Winload.

Winresume - Responsible for restoring Vista from Hibernation.

WinRM - Windows Remote Management. The Microsoft implementation of the industry-standard WS-Management. Included in Vista, but not enabled, by default. By including WinRM in Vista, allows remote monitoring and management of Vista by multiple 3rd party management systems. Provides a secure way to communicate with local and remote computers.

WMI - Windows Management Interface - Provides scripting and programming hooks-and-handles for Windows application developers.

WMS - Windows Meeting Space (Vista' implementation of Netmeeting or Conf) limits attendees to 10 for each meeting. WMS REQUIRES IPV6 to be able to go beyond the local (IPv4) subnet. A global IPv6 address will be a 128-bit hexadecimal number that begins with 2001:, 2002:, 2003:, 2400:, 2404:, 2600:, 2604:, 2608:, 260C:, 2610:, 2800:, 2A00:, or 2601. If you're not connected to a network (Wireless), you can choose to create a private ad hoc wireless network by which other meeting participants can connect and join the meeting (e.g. conference room meetings).

WOW64 - Windows-on-windows. Allows 64-bit XP, Server 2003, Vista and 2008 to run 32 bit applications. Note: 64-bit applications no longer have a WOW for 16-bit applications, and 16-bit applications and drivers cannot be run.

WPD - Windows Portable Devices - a term used in Vista and Server 2008 group policies to control devices from AD. These devices include "smart" devices, such as media players, mobile phones, Windows CE devices, etc

WPEinit - Windows PE Intialization. Initialized Windows PE at start time.

WPF - Windows Presentation Foundation Graphics Engine. The new graphics rendering engine for the XPS (XML-based) print documents. Co-exists with the existing windows GDI (Graphic Device Interface) previously used in XP. Vista provides a dual print path to accommodate both printing modes. The print device must also support XPSDrv-type drivers - or Vista will revert back to GDI for printing on legacy printers.

WRP - Windows Resource Protection. WRP is designed to make SYSTEM resources read-only. Updates to WRP protected resources ae restricted to trusted installers, such as Windows Servicing. This replaces the pre-Vista "Windows File Protection" feature. In Windows File Protection, critical system resources were cached in a semi-secure location, and automatically replaced if their registered file changed (Hash). WRP works by setting ACLS on protected files that are not even accessible by administrators (except by seizing ownership and changing the ACL). Full permission to modify or replace WRP-protected resources was granted only to processes using the Windows Module Installer service (TrustedInstaller.exe).

WS-Discovery - Web Services Dynamic Discovery. a technical specification that defines a multicast discovery protocol to locate services on a local network.

WS-Management - a standard that describes how systems can access and exchange management information, using a web service. Also see LTI. MDT, WinRS, and WinRM. WS-Management provides a common way for systems to access and exchange management information across the IT infrastructure. The specification is quite rich, supporting much more than get/set of simple variables, and in that it is closer to WBEM or Netconf than to SNMP. A mapping of the DMTF-originated Common Information Model into WS-Management was also defined.

WSIM - see Windows System Image Manager

WSUS - Windows Server Update Services. A utility, employed by domain-based organizations to download Microsoft Updates ONLY to a single server, where the WSUS administrator evaluates and/or tests the updates, then approves them for installation. In a WSUS organization, all other server computer and all client computers download ONLY THE APPROVED (or tested) updates from the server on the LAN - reducing total WAN bandwidth requirements. There are several exceptions that can be applied to WSUS rules - which is usually a topic for certification exams.

WUA - Windows Update Agent (The Windows Update that we are all familiar with). When using WAIK, the WUA 3.0 (latest) agent must be included in the install, manually.

WVCE - Windows Vista Compatibility Evaluator. An agent compatibility evaluator component of ACT. Identifies depreciated programming parts of an application that may cause incompatibilities in a Vista deployment.

XAML - Extensible Application Markup Language. The underlying standard for all Microsoft XML-based documents. XAML elements map directly to Common Language Runtime object instances, while XAML attributes map to Common Language Runtime properties and events on those objects. XAML files can be created and edited with visual design tools such as Microsoft Expression Blend, Microsoft Visual Studio, and the hostable Windows Workflow Foundation visual designer. They can also be created and edited with a standard text editor, a code editor such as XAMLPad, or a graphical editor such as Vectropy.

XML - Extensible Markup Language. All Microsoft Office products 2007 or later defaults to an XML file format - also know as OPENDOC format. For instance, a Word file which would ordinarily be saved as a .doc, will be saved as a .docX. Xml file formats are used extensively in web-based content. In general, and XML is a file containing the data content for another (HTML-based or higher) web application. In this way, the content is separate from the application that created it.

XPS - XML Paper Specification. provides users and developers with a robust, open and trustworthy format for electronic paper. The XML Paper Specification describes electronic paper in a way that can be read by hardware, read by software, and read by people. XPS documents print better, can be shared easier, are more secure and can be archived with confidence.

Zero Touch installation - see "BDD"

ZTI - Zero Touch Installation. Utilizes Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager or SMS 2003 with Systems Management Server Operating System Deployment (SMS OSD).
 



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  Webmaster Will Harper, MCSE, MCT, CCNA 08/22/2009 22:23

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